The desire to know about the continent of Antarctica is in the mind of every tourist. The name Antarctica is derived from the Roman version of the Greek word ‘Antarctica’. The name Antarctica means “opposite the arctic distance”. The continent of Antarctica is divided into two parts of different sizes, with the larger part known as East Antarctica and the smaller part known as West Antarctica. Among these seven continents, Antarctica is the coldest continent. The continent of Antarctica is the fifth largest continent after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. 98 percent of Antarctica is covered with ice and it is spread over the surface of Antarctica in the form of a thick layer of about 2 km.
This continent surrounded by the Southern Ocean is known as an icy land. This fascinating continent called the cold desert is known to be home to various research centers. No one can reside here permanently, but every year more than 5000 people move to research centers on this continent. It is home to penguins, seals, nematodes, tardigrades, fleas, a variety of algae and microbes, and tundra vegetation. Very cold, and dry and the strongest winds blow in this continent on the South Pole. If you also want to know more about the Antarctica continent, then definitely read this article of ours.
History of Antarctica continent
The history of the continent of Antarctica came to the fore in 1773 when James Cook saw that it was a place where there was no land far and wide. Only ice was seen in the continent of Antarctica. James Cook told that it is a continent due to the accumulation of rock on the icebergs. After this, in 1820, Thaddeus Bellinghausen crossed the Antarctic Circle. Antarctica is called the last edge of the world. There is an island named Livingston in Antarctica. The first person to reach the continent of Antarctica alone was David Henry Lewis of New Zealand.
Interesting facts about Antarctica’s continent
- Antarctica is an icy continent, the temperature here always remains below 4 degrees.
- The National Institute of Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) has inaugurated the Isotrace Laboratory at Vasco da Gama, Goa.
- Due to the different shape of the continent in both the winter and summer seasons, it is also called the ‘moving continent’.
- Under the ice layer in the continent of Antarctica, a highly saline water lake named Vida has been found.
- The Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea are parts of the Antarctic continent.
- There are many different types of minerals here. For example, information about gold, silver, copper, coal, manganese, uranium, platinum, chromium, natural gas, etc. has been received.
- Lichen and manas are the main flora here.
- Flying seabirds called albatross and petrels are found in the coastal regions.
- A bird named Penguin which cannot fly is a famous bird of the continent of Antarctica.
- This peninsula is extended towards Cape Horn of South America.
When and by whom was the continent of Antarctica discovered?
Everyone is curious to know who discovered the Antarctica continent. The credit for the discovery of the continent of Antarctica goes to James Cook, who first discovered this fascinating continent in 1773. But due to bad weather, he returned from a few kilometers away from this island. The person who discovered the mainland of this continent was Valuing Shawn, who was a captain of the Russian Imperial Navy. He discovered this icy desert in 1820. The English navigator Williams Smith also wrote an article on this after seeing the continent of Antarctica. In 1840, Charles Sakis, the leader of the American Expeditionary Force, also saw an active ice shelf in the coast of Antarctica. It was he who had told me that it is a peninsula.
Area of Antarctica continent
The area of the continent of Antarctica is 140 million square kilometers (54 million square miles). It is the fifth largest continent on Earth, after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America.
Name of country and capital of Antarctica continent
The question of how many countries are there in the continent of Antarctica is astonishing to everyone and this question is searched a lot. Let us tell you according to our research that the continent of Antarctica is so cold that no one can live here permanently and therefore there is not a single country in the continent of Antarctica. But in this country less continent, there was a treaty in 1959, which took place between different countries doing research in the research center of the continent of Antarctica. In this treaty, 7 countries Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, China, and the United Kingdom signed the treaty and later joined America and Russia, now in the continent of Antarctica, A total of 46 countries participated.
India’s research center in Antarctica
There are many research centers on the continent of Antarctica. India established three research centers in America which are known as Maitri, Gangotri, and Bharati. Due to excess snow, the Gangotri Research Center was covered in snow, due to which it was later closed. But Maitri and Bharti research stations are still functioning.
Day and night information in Antarctica
Antarctica continent is the only place where there is a day for 6 months and a night for 6 months. There are only two seasons in Antarctica, the winter season and the summer season. There is light for 6 months in the summer and it is dark for 6 months in the winter season.
The highest peak in Antarctica
The name of the highest peak of the continent of Antarctica is Mount Vinson, which is a peak of 4892 meters high. The Vinson mountain range is located in the northern part of the mantle of the Massif of the continent of Antarctica. This attractive peak of the continent of Antarctica is a great place for tourists.
Who was the first Indian person to visit Antarctica?
The first Indian person to visit the continent of Antarctica was Lieutenant Ram Charan, a meteorologist of the Indian Navy. On 9 January 1982, under the leadership of Syed Zahoor Qasim, Lieutenant Ram Charan became the first Indian to visit the continent of Antarctica.
Who was in charge of the first Indian team to go to Antarctica?
Dr. S.Z. Kasim, Secretary, the Department of Environment and former Director of NIO, was in charge of the first Indian team to go to Antarctica.
What is the Antarctica treaty?
You might have heard about the Antarctica Treaty. This treaty was done by the continent of Antarctica and some countries of the world in general for the main purposes. Antarctica does not have any country of its own. On December 1, 1959, many countries together signed a treaty called “Washington” in Washington DC, USA. This treaty came into force on 23 June 1961. The main objectives of this treaty are as follows – The first objective of this treaty was that the continent of Antarctica would be used only for peaceful purposes.
The second objective of this treaty was that there would be freedom of scientific investigation at various research centers in the continent of Antarctica.
The third main objective of this treaty was that scientists from the continent of Antarctica can freely spread their knowledge of Antarctica outside.
Tourist places to visit and see in the Antarctica continent
Antarctica continent is a very famous place for tourism. Tourism in Antarctica started in the year 1960. After this, in 1970, people from Australia and New Zealand visited this place by airplane. Between 1999-2000, about 15,000 passengers made sea voyages on the continent of Antarctica. To date, millions of tourists have made sea voyages to this vast and cold continent. Even though no one lives permanently on the continent of Antarctica, the number of tourists living here temporarily and for research work is more than 5 thousand. There are also many places in the continent of Antarctica where you can visit and get information about this huge icy peninsula. The famous attraction of Antarctica is the Antarctic Peninsula.
Antarctica Peninsula is one the best places to visit here which is located in the northern part of Antarctica. This place is also known as the home of snow forests. The Antarctic Peninsula is a very popular destination because of the mountain peaks, huge glaciers, and vast skies of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here tourists come to enjoy this spectacular sight with many expedition teams. The Antarctic Peninsula is also home to an abundance of penguin rookeries and cormorant colonies. During the migration season, there will be many opportunities to see minke, killer (orca), and humpback whales up close
Antarctica’s Famous Tourist Place South Georgia
South Georgia is known as the “Alps in the Mid-Ocean” in the continent of Antarctica. The picturesque stretches of South Georgia and the long and narrow islands remain the center of attraction of this place. The South Georgia Expedition has become incredibly popular with the teams.
How to get to Antarctica continent
Antarctica is a vast area of ice and traveling here is definitely an adventure. That’s why there are no commercial flights for tourists to Antarctica. If you want to go to Antarctica from India, you have to reach Invercargill in New Zealand and Hobart in Australia, South America. From here you will reach Antarctica via cruise or you can also travel to Antarctica from Ushuaia in Argentina. Flights can also be taken to the Shetland Islands and from there you will reach via cruise. For your information, let us tell you that flights can be made to Ushuaia from major cities of India through Air India, British Airways, and Qatar Airways.